Vol. 8 No.2 (2023)

Students’ experiences with the utilisation of the 4IR technologies in online learning: a case study of institutions of higher learning in Botswana and Zambia

Liah Shonhe
Dalian University of Technology, China
Lshonhe@mail.dlut.edu.cn / lmachara8@gmail.com

Priti Jain
Indira Gandhi National Open University, India

Akakandelwa Akakandelwa
University of Zambia


Rationale of Study – This study delved into students' experiences with using 4IR technologies in institutions of higher learning.

Methodology – Adopting a cross-sectional descriptive survey design, this study targeted students in higher learning institutions in Botswana and Zambia. Data was collected through an online WhatsApp questionnaire (Google Forms). Quantitative data was analysed using IBM SPSS version 26 for descriptive statistics, while qualitative data was analysed manually using a thematic technique.

Findings – The findings suggest that higher institutions of learning in Botswana and Zambia have taken steps to integrate 4IR technologies by utilising learning management systems, virtual classrooms, video conferencing tools, and social media platforms. However, there is still a need to further incorporate advanced technologies such as blockchain, AI virtual teaching assistants, augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR) to exploit the potential of Education 4.0 fully.

Implications – The insights derived from this study offer valuable guidance for policymakers, educational administrators, and instructors seeking to contribute to advancing Sustainable Development Goal 4 in the Southern African region.

Originality – This study is one of the few exploring the perspectives of 4IR among students in the Southern African education sector.


A4IR, higher learning institutions, Education 4.0, Botswana, Zambia, university students